Development of product quality management guidelines for informal small-scale brick manufacturing enterprises in Dididi, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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dc.contributor.advisor Amponsah-Dacosta, F.
dc.contributor.advisor Mhlongo, Sphiwe Emmanuel
dc.contributor.author Matsiketa, Khensani Eullen
dc.date 2018
dc.date.accessioned 2018-06-05T18:31:16Z
dc.date.available 2018-06-05T18:31:16Z
dc.date.issued 2018-05-18
dc.identifier.citation Matsiketa, Khensani Eullen (2018) Development of product quality management guidelines for informal small-scale brick manufacturing enterprises in Dididi, Limpopo Province, South Africa. University of Venda, South Africa.<http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1129>.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1129
dc.description MESMEG
dc.description Department of Mining and Environmental Geology
dc.description.abstract Although clay brick manufacturing has been going on for many years in South Africa, informal small-scale clay brick manufacturing enterprises are not officially regulated. Consequently, informal brick makers in the study area do not adhere to the demanding requirements of the South African National Standards for burnt clay masonry. Therefore, their clay bricks lack uniformity in terms of quality. Preliminary work revealed that over time, buildings constructed with these bricks develop cracks, thereby compromising safety. The importance of product quality management is not well understood in the informal brick manufacturing enterprises. As a result, they do not have any product quality management guidelines. The main purpose of this research was to develop the product quality management guidelines for ensuring quality in small-scale brick making enterprises in Dididi area. The specific objectives were to characterize the raw materials for clay brick manufacturing, identify and assess the technical problems of clay brick production, analyse the process of clay brick production and determine areas where product quality improvement is warranted. The research involved fieldwork which included soil sampling, analysis of clay brick production through the use of questionnaires and onsite observation of the production process, collection of samples of burnt bricks which were examined for compressive strength, water absorption as well as dimension measurements. These were then compared with the prescribed quality standards. Laboratory analyses of samples of raw materials were conducted and these included sieve analysis which was conducted in order to establish the particle size distribution of the raw materials; Atterberg limit tests were conducted in order to establish the physical characteristics of the soil. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out to determine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the soil using XRF and XRD respectively. The textural characterisation of the material revealed abundance of sand sized particles and significantly low amounts of clay and silt. The plasticity of the soil used for bricks manufacturing in the study area was found to be ranging from slight to medium plasticity. Chemical analysis showed elevated silica contents with minor amounts of alumina and iron oxide. XRD analysis revealed the dominance of non-clay minerals with the highest concentration of quartz. The average compressive strengths of the tested brick samples for site A was 3.8, and 2.9 and 3.8 MPa for sites B and C respectively. The water absorption of the bricks was 13.5, 15.0 and 16.1% for samples from Site A, B and C respectively. The bricks dimensions met the recommended standards although their sizes were not uniform. v The survey conducted on brick manufacturing process revealed that the technical inefficiencies were mostly influenced by human and mechanical factors as well as the material inappropriateness. The production process was found to be too manual and labour intensive. Selection of the raw materials for brick manufacturing was based on indigenous knowledge and experience and most of the brick manufacturers lacked the prerequisite experience for making quality bricks. On the basis of the results of this research, it can be concluded that the materials used for manufacturing of clay bricks in Dididi are not well suited for making good quality bricks due to the reduced plasticity of the soil and the high concentration of quartz. These render the bricks brittle. It was also concluded that the production process also contributes to the poor quality of the bricks as the nature of the process was too manual. Selection of materials based merely on knowledge and experience and no scientific tests resulted in selection of inadequate materials which in turn affect the quality of the final bricks. It is therefore recommended that plastic clays be added to the raw clay materials to enhance its moulding property. In addition, materials such as internal fuels and anti-shrinkage materials should be incorporated into the process cycle to prevent cracking during drying and firing. Based on the findings of the analysis of the production process, it is recommended that mechanized techniques be employed in the operation and awareness training conducted to improve the understanding and skills of the brick manufacturers and to ensure production of good quality bricks. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xii, 100 leaves : color illustrations, color maps)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights University of Venda
dc.subject Clay bricks en_US
dc.subject Soil characterisation en_US
dc.subject Brick manufacturing en_US
dc.subject Product quality en_US
dc.subject Management guidelines en_US
dc.subject.ddc 338.6420968257
dc.subject.lcsh Small business -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Business -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Brickmaking -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Brickworks -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Building materials -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Clay -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Bricks -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Rural development -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Strip mining -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Clay industries -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Mining engineering -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Brick trade -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.title Development of product quality management guidelines for informal small-scale brick manufacturing enterprises in Dididi, Limpopo Province, South Africa en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US

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