Effects of open defecation on geophagic soils and water resources: A case study of Siloam village in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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dc.contributor.advisor Ekosse, G.E.
dc.contributor.advisor Odiyo, J. O.
dc.contributor.author Ravuluvulu, Funanani Rachel
dc.date 2018
dc.date.accessioned 2018-06-05T12:32:08Z
dc.date.available 2018-06-05T12:32:08Z
dc.date.issued 2018-05-18
dc.identifier.citation Ravuluvulu, Funanani Rachel (2018) Effects of open defecation on geophagic soils and water resources: A case study of Siloam Village in Limpopo Province, South Africa, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa, <http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1114>.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1114
dc.description MESHWR
dc.description Department of Hydrology and Water Resources
dc.description.abstract Communities in South Africa have been noted to consume earthy materials such a soil among others. Geophagy is largely practised in the rural areas as opposed to urban places, and in these places the level of sanitation is low and people usual practice open defecation. The practice of Geophagia has been associated with cultural, medicinal, psychological, religious and nutritional deficiency among others. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of open defecation on geophagic soils and water resources in Siloam village. The study also aimed to understand the reasons why people practice geophagia in Siloam village and the health effect associated with consumption of geophagic soils. To carry out the aim of the study, a questionnaire survey was conducted among women who practice geophagia between the ages of 18 and above in Siloam village. Two hundred and eighty-three (283) women were selected using snowball sampling method to take part in the study. From the (283) women, (200) women represent the geophagic group and (83) women represent the control group. The existing standard questionnaire adopted to generate data on human geophagia included aspects on demography, socio-economic, cultural, ecological, physicochemical aspects, indigenous knowledge and health effects of geophagic consumers. Participants were asked basic questions on why they practice geophagy, their geophagic material preferences, where they collect the geophagic material and other related questions. A total of twelve soil samples were collected from Siloam village, from the twelve soil samples collected eight were collected from sites known for geophagic practice and another four soil samples were collected from sites where geophagia is not practiced and the samples were used as control soil samples. All the twelve soil samples were analysed for the presence of geohelminths ova using Ammonium Bicarbonate Protocol (AMBIC protocol). The AMBIC protocol consists of four analytical procedures, namely, sample preparation, sample washing with AMBIC solution, geohelminths ova recovery through a modified zinc flotation method and microscopic analysis. vi Furthermore, a total of twelve water samples were collected from Nzhelele River and ponds water in Siloam village. From the twelve water samples, eight samples were collected close to where geophagic materials were collected and where open defecation is reported to be taking place and the remaining four water samples were collected randomly from Nzhelele river and water ponds in Siloam village and was recorded as a control group. A total of 12 water samples were analysed for total coliform and faecal coliform Escherichia Coli (E.coli) indicator using the membrane filter technique. The results from the administration of the questionnaire revealed there was prevalence in the practice of geophagia in the area. The study found that most of the villagers in Siloam consumed soil nearly on daily basis. According to the results, only women were involved in the geophagic practices in the area. Additionally, the study revealed that geophagic consumers were mainly in the age of child bearing age group and reddish and yellowish soils were the most preferred. Furthermore, the results showed that geophagic consumers in the area generally consumed soil commonly because of cravings and pregnancy, however, those who were not pregnant also consumed soil. The respondents reported that they mostly consumed clay and this material was consumed in its dry state and mostly unprocessed, if processed, it would be baked. This geophagic material was mainly found in the wild (riverbed, valley etc.); it was also found that most of the soil consumers did not know that the substances they consumed could be harmful to them. Among those who knew the consequences of consuming the material stated that soil consumption causes constipation, tooth decay, body poisoning, and abdominal pains. The results from the control group, 83 women who do not practice geophagia, aged between 18 and above, analysed using chi-square revealed a significant association of age with consuming soils (p<0.05), while there was no association of income source (p>0.05) and educational level (p>0.05) with consuming soils. Chi-square (χ2) analyses further revealed that there was no association of knowledge on the harmful nature of the substance (p>0.05), frequency of getting infections (p>0.05) and experiencing chronic illnesses (p>0.05) with frequency of consuming soils. vii The results of geophagic soils revealed the absence of geohelminths ova in the entire geophagic sample. Meaning geophagic consumers in Siloam village are not at risk of acquiring geohelminths infection which may be of potential risk to human health. However, geophagic consumers may be exposed to various other potentially hazardous biological and non-biological soil contents. The results of the water samples revealed that most of the water samples in the areas where open defection is reported to be practised had higher composition of faecal and total coliform bacteria. The composition was above the South African recommended standard for negligible risk of microbial infection. This has caused a great threat to those who consume soil collected near water resources, especially from riverbed and those who also use these water sources on their daily basis. The study recommends that geophagic consumers should continue to bake their materials before consumption as it might reduce the bacteria and toxic substances found in soils. The study also recommends that the residents of Siloam be made aware of the potential health hazards that might be posed to soil consumers and the effects of practicing open defecation near community water resources as high level of faecal coliform (E. coli) were found in the water. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xxi, 144 leaves : color illustrations, color maps)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Effects en_US
dc.subject Defection en_US
dc.subject Geophagic soils en_US
dc.subject Water resources en_US
dc.subject.ddc 616.85260968257
dc.subject.lcsh Pica (Pathology) -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Food preferences -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Nutrition disorders -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Soils -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Eating disorders --- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.title Effects of open defecation on geophagic soils and water resources: A case study of Siloam village in Limpopo Province, South Africa en_US
dc.type Dissetation en_US

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