Analysis of Heavy Metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Sewage Sludge from Thohoyandou Wastewater Treatment Plant and transfer to Vegetables.

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dc.contributor.advisor Odiyo, J. O.
dc.contributor.advisor Popoola, E. O.
dc.contributor.advisor Msagati, T. A.. M.
dc.contributor.author Akinsaya, Nurudeen Akinwale
dc.date 2018
dc.date.accessioned 2018-06-05T10:59:00Z
dc.date.available 2018-06-05T10:59:00Z
dc.date.issued 2018-05-18
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1112
dc.description MENVSC
dc.description Department of Hydrology and Water Resources
dc.description.abstract Sewage sludge (biosolids) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been widely used as a soil improver in Europe, United States of America and some developing countries including South Africa. It has its benefits for farmers as a good source of organic matter and minerals, however, sludge after treatment still contains pathogenic organisms, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The POP and heavy metal contaminants that accumulate in sludge may transfer through the food chain and cause adverse effects on human beings. In this study, a field experiment was carried out on farmland fertilized with sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that vasically receives domestic wastewater and storm water. Vegetable spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was used for this study and was planted on a farmland under controlled conditions. Ten ridges each of dimensions 20 m × 0.3 m was made and dry sludge weights of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 kg were applied as manure on each of the ridges, respectively. Representative samples of sludge and soil were taken for analysis of heavy metals and POPs. At maturity, in twelve weeks, the root and leave samples of the vegetable were taken from all the ridges including the control. The soil, sludge, and vegetable samples were analyzed for total heavy metal content (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Co, Zn, Al, Fe, Mn), speciated heavy metal content and POP (PAH, PCB). Soil and sludge samples were also analyzed for total organic content, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), conductivity and alkalinity. The analysis for total heavy metals and speciated heavy metal content was carried out using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES), and CEC analysis was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). A two-dimensional gas chromatograph with time of flight mass spectrometry detector (GC X GC TOFMS) was used for POP measurements. pH measurement was made using a pH meter and conductivity measurement using a conductivity meter. Alkalinity and total organic content analysis was performed using titrimetric apparatus. The highest total heavy metal concentration of 378.9 mg / kg was recorded in Fe metal in soil and Leaf sample while the lowest total metal concentration of 0.0003 mg / kg was in Cu metal in root sample. The highest heavy metal concentration of 1002 mg / kg in speciated forms was in Mn metal in F1 fraction and the lowest of 0.0004 mg / kg was in Cd metal in F5 fraction. PAHs were only found in soil samples and their concentrations ranged from 2.53 mg / kg to 146.5 mg / kg. There were no PCB detected in all the samples analysed. The results indicated that the trace metals concentrations found in the exchangeable fraction were higher than those observed in any of the preceding extractions except in the case of Cd, Cr, Fe and Pb where Fe-Mn oxide and organic matter fractions predominated and were closely followed by exchangeable fraction. en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xv, 96 leaves : Color illustrations)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights University of Venda
dc.subject Sewage sludge en_US
dc.subject Biosolids en_US
dc.subject Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS) en_US
dc.subject Persistent organic pollutants (POPS) en_US
dc.subject Metals en_US
dc.subject.ddc 363.72850968257
dc.subject.lcsh Sewage disposal -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Sewage sludge -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Sewage -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Sewage disposal plants -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Spinach -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Sewage -- Purification -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Heavy metals -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Sewage -- Purification -- Heavy metals removals
dc.title Analysis of Heavy Metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Sewage Sludge from Thohoyandou Wastewater Treatment Plant and transfer to Vegetables. en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US

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