A Framework for Improving Community Based Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Planning in Fragile Areas : A Case of Jariban District, Somalia

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dc.contributor.advisor Zuwarimwe,J.
dc.contributor.advisor Mwale, M.
dc.contributor.author Mafuta, Wonder
dc.date 2021
dc.date.accessioned 2021-11-22T13:00:30Z
dc.date.available 2021-11-22T13:00:30Z
dc.date.issued 2021-05
dc.identifier.citation Mafuta, Wonder (2021) A Framework for Improving Community Based Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Planning in Fragile Areas : A Case of Jariban District, Somalia. University of Venda, South Africa.<http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1753>.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1753
dc.description PhDRDV en_ZA
dc.description Institute for Rural Development
dc.description.abstract In fragile contexts, the main priority for service providers is to direct resources to interventions that save the lives of vulnerable communities. Sometimes, this is done at the expense of long-term sustainable rural development priorities. The objective of this thesis was to develop a framework to deepen community participation in the WASH planning process in fragile areas using a case study in Jariban district of Somalia. A critical realist epistemology was employed along line a sequential cross-sectional case study design that blended quantitative and qualitative techniques. Quantitative data was collected using household questionnaires and transect walks. Qualitative data was gathered using a survey monkey and focus group discussions. Descriptive (central tendency) and inferential (logistic regression, Chi-square test, predictive equations) statistics were run using SPSS to understand key indicators. Qualitative data underwent pure inductive thematic analysis NVivo 12. The findings show that access to safe drinking water sources is 57.5%. Of the 42.5% of respondents who did not access safe drinking water source, only 10.8% confirmed that they treat drinking water at the point of use. The main reason for household water treatment was the positive mindset (.272) of the household head towards water treatment. Woman-headed households were more likely to treat water before drinking than male-headed households. The majority (80.2%) of the respondents access approximately 13 litres per person per day. Only 26.9% of the respondents accessed basic sanitation. Of the respondents, 55.7% did not share latrines, while 44.3% share resulting in open defecation. There is a backlog in WASH infrastructure because of minimum to zero investments towards WASH infrastructure in Jariban from the State Government, with more dependency on the donor community. The study revealed that resources for the construction of latrines and water sources come from the following sources, NGOs (54.3%), diaspora community (34.5%) and community contributions (11.2%). WASH conflicts hinder community participation in fragile areas. The conflicts arise between; female and male (6.2%), young and old (1.3%) as well as insiders and outsiders (7.8%). Stakeholders in WASH have differences on whether to focus on emergency or development programmes (25%). The different benefits that each party expect, whether visible or non-visible (57.8%), can also be a source of conflict. Some WASH conflicts are because of misunderstanding on water resources usage for human, crop or livestock watering (1.6%). Involving the community in WASH planning is essential as it enhances; need identification (44%), project ownership (3%), accountability (2%), knowledge transfer (7%), stakeholder coordination (2%), prioritisation (25%) since the community has institutional memory (17%). iv In conclusion, WASH access in the study area remains low, resulting in health-related risks, including diarrhoeal disease. Due to the backlog in investments, particularly on improved latrines, it is concluded that their usage is low and a hindrance to having access to sanitation, hygiene and water as per the SDG goal of leaving no one behind. The limited resource allocation by both the government and community affect the WASH infrastructure's sustainability and further development. While investment towards WASH in Jariban demonstrates multiple potential sources, there is a need to strengthen domestic resource mobilisation and explore governments' role and capacity to secure WASH infrastructure investments. It is also recommended to explore how to tax remittances to fund WASH infrastructure development and the private sector's role in WASH infrastructure investment. To deepen community participation, the locale who have institutional memory about each conflict type's history and connotations should identify, manage, and resolve WASH conflicts. While investment towards WASH in the study area align with SDG17.3 of sourcing funds from multiple sources, there is a need to strengthen domestic resource mobilisation as specified by SDG 17.1. Semi-formal microfinance can be used to fund WASH facilities in fragile areas where legislation is weak to support the central bank's functions. The study proposed a framework for improving community-based WASH planning in fragile areas. The critical pillars for sustainable WASH service in fragile contexts are; deepening community participation through conflict transformation, diversifying funding options and increasing the stock of WASH infrastructure. en_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_ZA
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xv,92 leaves) : color illustrations, color maps)
dc.language.iso en en_ZA
dc.rights University of Venda
dc.subject Community participation en_ZA
dc.subject Conflicts en_ZA
dc.subject Diaspora funding en_ZA
dc.subject Investments en_ZA
dc.subject Resource mobilisation en_ZA
dc.title A Framework for Improving Community Based Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Planning in Fragile Areas : A Case of Jariban District, Somalia en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA

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