Geographic and Temporal Trends in the Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Mechanisms of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance: an Individual-Patient-and Sequence-Level-Meta-Analysis

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dc.contributor.author Rhee, Soo-Yon
dc.contributor.author Blanco, Jose Luis
dc.contributor.author Jordan, Michael R.
dc.contributor.author Taylor, J.
dc.contributor.author Lemmey, Philippe
dc.contributor.author Varghese, Vici
dc.date.accessioned 2016-10-30T10:24:57Z
dc.date.available 2016-10-30T10:24:57Z
dc.date.issued 2015-04-07
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/661
dc.description Original article can be accessed from the http://hivdb.stanford.edu/surveillance/map/ en_US
dc.description.abstract Background Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and de- signing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and to identify the HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations responsible for TDR in different regions and virus subtypes. Methods and Findings We reviewed all GenBank submissions of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences with or without protease and identified 287 studies published between March 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, with more than 25 recently or chronically infected ARV-naïve individuals. These studies comprised 50,870 individuals from 111 countries. Each set of study se- quences was analyzed for phylogenetic clustering and the presence of 93 surveillance drug-resistance mutations (SDRMs). The median overall TDR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), south/southeast Asia (SSEA), upper-income Asian countries, Latin America/ Caribbean, Europe, and North America was 2.8%, 2.9%, 5.6%, 7.6%, 9.4%, and 11.5%, respectively. In SSA, there was a yearly 1.09-fold (95% CI: 1.05–1.14) increase in odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up attributable to an increase in non-nucleoside reverse tran- scriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance. The odds of NNRTI-associated TDR also increased in Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.25), North America (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26), Europe (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01–1.13), and upper-income Asian countries (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12–1.55). In SSEA, there was no significant change in the odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92–1.02). An analysis limited to sequences with mixtures at less than 0.5% of their nucleotide positions—a proxy for recent infection—yielded trends comparable to those obtained using the complete dataset. Four NNRTI SDRMs—K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A—accounted for >80% of NNRTI-asso- ciated TDR in all regions and subtypes. Sixteen nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs accounted for >69% of NRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes. In SSA and SSEA, 89% of NNRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resistance to nevira- pine or efavirenz, whereas only 27% of NRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resis- tance to zidovudine, lamivudine, tenofovir, or abacavir. Of 763 viruses with TDR in SSA and SSEA, 725 (95%) were genetically dissimilar; 38 (5%) formed 19 sequence pairs. Inherent lim- itations of this study are that some cohorts may not represent the broader regional population and that studies were heterogeneous with respect to duration of infection prior to sampling. Conclusions Most TDR strains in SSA and SSEA arose independently, suggesting that ARV regimens with a high genetic barrier to resistance combined with improved patient adherence may mitigate TDR increases by reducing the generation of new ARV-resistant strains. A small number of NNRTI-resistance mutations were responsible for most cases of high-level resis- tance, suggesting that inexpensive point-mutation assays to detect these mutations may be useful for pre-therapy screening in regions with high levels of TDR. In the context of a public health approach to ARV therapy, a reliable point-of-care genotypic resistance test could identify which patients should receive standard first-line therapy and which should receive a protease-inhibitor-containing regimen
dc.description.sponsorship Funding: SYR, VV, and RWS were supported in part from NIH grant R)! A!068581.SYR and RWS were supprted in part from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation grant. MRJ is supprted by CFAR grant IP30A142853 en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Geograhic en_US
dc.subject Molecular
dc.subject Epidemiology
dc.subject HIV-1
dc.subject Drug resistance
dc.subject Patient
dc.subject Sequence-Level
dc.subject Meta-Analysis
dc.title Geographic and Temporal Trends in the Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Mechanisms of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance: an Individual-Patient-and Sequence-Level-Meta-Analysis en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.version Publisher's version

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