The impact of enteric pathogens and secreted extracellular vesicles on amoebic virulence and outcome of infection

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dc.contributor.advisor Samie, A.
dc.contributor.advisor Gilchrist, Carol A.
dc.contributor.author Ngobeni, Renay
dc.date 2018
dc.date.accessioned 2018-10-23T13:57:56Z
dc.date.available 2018-10-23T13:57:56Z
dc.date.issued 2018-09-21
dc.identifier.citation Ngobeni, Renay (2018) The impact of enteric pathogens and secreted extracellular vesicles on amoebic virulence and outcome of infection, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, <http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1258>
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1258
dc.description PhD (Microbiology)
dc.description Department of Microbiology
dc.description.abstract Background: Diarrheal diseases have a major effect on human health, Globally; it is second only to pneumonia as a leading cause of death among children under five. They are due to a variety of infectious and non-infectious agents; including Entamoeba spp. Entamoeba histolytica is an invasive enteric protozoan parasite that causes amebiasis. Amebiasis is frequent in communities without clean water and poor sanitation, which include low-income South African populations in Giyani and Pretoria. In these populations, the amount of diarrhea caused by Entamoeba histolytica inclusive of all ages, sexes and HIV status is uncertain. Diagnosis of the parasite is usually by microscopy. However, microscopy lacks sensitivity and specificity, therefore it is not reliable. Fortunately, molecular diagnostic tests have been developed to detect different Entamoeba species in humans. It is known that the parasite E. histolytica causes asymptomatic and symptomatic diseases. However, the transition from colonization to disease is still unclear. While parasite and host factors, as well as environmental conditions influence the infection outcome, there is currently no clear explanation of wide variation in the presentation of the disease. This could suggest that there are other factors affecting the disease outcome. A better understanding of these factors as well as their role in disease remains target objectives of modern scientists and it will definitely help in the fight against the disease. In spite of the emerging evidence that the host microbiome, parasite burden and the inflammatory response contribute to the virulence of E. histolytica, their roles have never been defined in developing regions such as Giyani and Pretoria. In addition, the present study hypothesized that co-infections with E. histolytica and secretion of extracellular vesicles/exosomes have a significant impact on the virulence of E. histolytica. Little has been explored or elucidated about responses triggered by other enteropathogens/ameba interplay that could be important in the induction of tissue invasion and disease and also how E. histolytica/enteropathogens interplay in these infections has not been determined. Therefore, the knowledge of this interplay could help in understanding how this modifies disease manifestations by modulating pathogen virulence and the host response. The use of secretion systems is an essential biological process exploited by pathogenic microorganisms to promote survival and spread of the pathogen, which in turn exacerbate the infection. The study of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by pathogens is a new and exciting field that may realistically contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenic process of E. histolytica and provide alternate control strategies. Aim and objective of the study: The overall aim of the study was to determine the impact of enteric pathogens and secreted extracellular vesicles on amebic virulence and the outcome of infection. This aim was addressed in through a series of six primary objectives, which were: a. To investigate the distribution and prevalence of protozoan parasites in South Africa. b. To investigate novel species of Entamoeba circulating in the South African population. ix c. To elucidate the impact of gut microbiota and immune response during amebic infection. d. To determine the role of Entamoeba histolytica macrophage inhibitory factor (EhMIF) during amebic infection. e. To investigate the impact of co-infections on the outcome of amebiasis. f. To determine the presence of secreted extracellular vesicles/exosomes in Entamoeba histolytica. Brief methodology and results: A modified and validated Taqman qPCR assay (with taqman probes and genus specific primers) was used for amplification and target detection. This assay was used to investigate the distribution and prevalence of protozoan parasites (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia) in South Africa, the assay was considered superior for this project because it is more sensitive than conventional PCR and it can be used to detect multiple infection targets. This assay allows fast, accurate, and quantitative detection of a broad spectrum of enteropathogens and is well suited for surveillance or clinical purposes. A total of 484 stool samples collected from diarrheal and non-diarrheal patients from rural and urban communities of South Africa were studied. The overall prevalence of parasites (Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp) in rural and urban patients were found to be 49% (112/227) and 21% (54/257) respectively (p= < 0.0001). The distribution of specific pathogens in rural areas was Cryptosporidium spp (20%) and Giardia lamblia (14%). Our findings showed no significant difference in parasitic infections between gender and the age of the participants (Chapter 3). The discovery of novel species is of great importance to human health. We have recently discovered stools positive for Entamoeba organisms by microscopy but PCR negative for known Entamoeba species. This led to the hypothesis that novel species of Entamoeba are present in the South African population. A comprehensive assay was used which included probes to identify Entamoeba bangladeshi from diarrheal and non-diarrheal participants. A sensitive qPCR assays and amplicon sequencing was used to detect Entamoeba spp, Prevotella copri and Enterobacteriaceae. Interestingly, E. bangladeshi was identified in the South African population. Entamoeba was present in 27% (E. histolytica 8.5% (41/484), E. dispar 8% (38/484), and E. bangladeshi 4.75% (23/484) E. moshkovskii was not detected in the present study. We were also able to observe changes in the host microbiome and the parasite burden associated with E. histolytica infections in S. African diarrhea cases versus asymptomatic controls but not with E. bangladeshi or E. dispar. In E. histolytica positive samples the level of both parasite and P. copri were lower in non-diarrheal samples (p=0.0034) (Chapter 4). There is accumulating evidence that the inflammatory response contributes to injury. Little is known about the key parasite mediators of host mucosal immunopathology. This study hypothesized that migration inhibitory factor (MIF) mediates the destructive host inflammatory response seen in amebic colitis. To determine the role of EhMIF during amebic infection, we used a genetic approach to test the effect of EhMIF on mucosal inflammation. We found that EhMIF induces IL-8 secretion from intestinal epithelial cells. Mice treated with antibodies that specifically block EhMIF had reduced chemokine expression and neutrophil infiltration in the mucosa. In addition to antibody-mediated neutralization, mice infected with parasites overexpressing EhMIF had increased chemokine expression, neutrophil influx and mucosal damage. We also found that the concentration of EhMIF correlated with the level of intestinal inflammation in persons with intestinal amebiasis. Together, our results reveal a novel parasite mediator of mucosal inflammation and support MIF homologs as potential immunomodulatory targets (Chapter 5). To investigate the impact of co-infections on the outcome of amebiasis, we analyzed the co-occurence of E. histolytica with other enteropathogens known to cause diarrheal infections, such as Shigella/EIEC (IpaH), Campylobacter (cadf), Enterotoxigenic E. coli (STh), Norovirus GII and Adenovirus (Hexon). The results were compared with those obtained with E. histolytica that were not interacted with enteropathogens and with E. histolytica interacted with enteropathogens. The impact of multiple infections on the outcome of the infection was compared between nondiarrheal and diarrheal stool samples. It was found that co-infections with two pathogens were associated with diarrhea compared to single infections. Moreover, Norovirus GII, Campylobacter (Cadf) and co-infections were associated with diarrhea in the study population. This study did not show any significant impact of pathogens co-infecting with E. histolytica on the outcome of amebic infection (Chapter 6). The presence of secreted extracellular vesicles/Exosomes in Entamoeba histolytica was determined by using the Pathogenic ameba strains (HM-1:IMSS or HM-1:IMSS (Sub-strain-US) from petri’s lab to purify exosomes using the commercially available kit to isolate exosomes (total exosomes isolation kit). Our study for the first time revealed that E. histolytica does secrete Evs. This finding increases the appreciation that all organisms are likely to secrete these EVs (Chapter 7). However, the impact of these EVs on the pathogenesis of E. histolytica needs further investigations. Conclusion: This study has contributed significantly to our knowledge on infectious diarrhea and the diversity of Entamoeba species by providing new data on the rate and prevalence of Entamoeba diarrheal infections and their distribution in the South African population. Our study describes for the first time the presence of E. bangladeshi in the South African population. Furthermore, our results reveal a novel parasite mediator of mucosal inflammation and support MIF homologs as potential immunomodulatory targets. This study also, for the first time revealed that E. histolytica does secrete EVs. The results from this work will undoubtedly open an exciting research to establish a deeper understanding of the function and role of these vesicles in amebic infection. We encourage public health interventions like health education programs and improvement of sanitation and hygiene in these populations. Molecular diagnostics should be used for specific diagnostic in clinical settings. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_US
dc.format.extent 1 onlne resource (xxxi, 233 leaves: color illustrations)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights University of Venda
dc.subject Entamoeba spp. en_US
dc.subject Entamoeba histolytica en_US
dc.subject E-histolytica en_US
dc.subject Cryptosporidium spp. en_US
dc.subject Giardia lamblia en_US
dc.subject.ddc 579.34
dc.subject.lcsh Diarrhea, Infantile.
dc.subject.lcsh Enterobacteriaceae
dc.subject.lcsh Entamoeba histolytica
dc.subject.lcsh Diarrhea in chidren
dc.subject.lcsh Entamoeba
dc.subject.lcsh Diarrhea
dc.title The impact of enteric pathogens and secreted extracellular vesicles on amoebic virulence and outcome of infection en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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