An assessment of water quality of the wetland downstream of Makhado oxidation and its potential effects on irrigation wters

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dc.contributor.advisor Gumbo, Jabulani
dc.contributor.advisor Gitari, W. M..
dc.contributor.advisor Pindihama, Glen
dc.contributor.author Shibambu, C. S.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-08-17T12:56:10Z
dc.date.available 2016-08-17T12:56:10Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/627
dc.description MESC
dc.description Department of Hydrology and Water Resources
dc.description.abstract Wetlands are known of their pollution reduction characteristics due to their flat topography and dense vegetation which capture pollutants on the settling sediments. Three processes take place on the captured pollutants in the sediments, the physical, chemical and biological processes, which facilitate the removal of pollutants from the wetlands. This research was carried out in order to assess the Water Quality of wetland downstream of Makhado oxidation ponds and its potential effects on Irrigation Waters by determining the Physical-chemical parameters (pH, Dissolved Oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity and turbidity); the nutrient levels (Nitrates, phosphates, nitrites, bromide) and heavy metals. The water samples were collected from the effluent discharge of Makhado oxidation ponds (upstream), the middle section of the wetland (midstream) and downstream of the wetland. The climate data for the study was also used assess the contribution to variation in the physical-chemical parameters during their passage through the wetland. The use of waters in the wetland by subsistence farmer’s was also assessed to determine their farmer’s perception on wastewater reuse, sustainability, water quality, health hazards and crop yield. At the discharge and midstream point, the physical parameters tested were found to be mostly outside the target water quality range of irrigation water set out by DWAF but are within the DWAF guidelines for discharge of wastewater. The exceptions were with total dissolved solids which were higher than 25 mg/l guideline value of the said standards. The anions were analysed by Ion chromatography and showed spatial variation in content and seasonality. The nutrients (nitrates, nitrites and phosphates) and chloride were higher than the DWAF guidelines for discharge of wastewater. The heavy metal content in the wetland was analysed by ICP-OES and varied throughout the wetland. The following metals were reduced during their passage in wetland and were within DWAF guidelines: zinc, lead, cadmium and total chromium. Iron and manganese were reduced during the drier season but were above the DWAF guideline values during the wet season. Also the metal contents in the wetland are out of the target water quality range of the same standards bringing forth the risks of toxicity in the wetland. The anion analysis also suggests that the wetland is becoming a nutrient rich environment bringing forth risks of eutrophication. Nitrite concentrations did not conform to the South African viii Water Guidelines on target water quality ranges for irrigation water. Farmers have expressed a positive opinion on wastewater use for irrigation since there are loads of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in wetland may contribute to development of harmful algal blooms. en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resources (xiii, 77 leaves : color illustrations; color maps)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Wetlands en_US
dc.subject Physical parameters en_US
dc.subject Anions en_US
dc.subject Harmful algai blooms en_US
dc.subject Subsistence farming en_US
dc.subject.ddc Wetlands -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.ddc 577.680968257
dc.subject.lcsh Aquatic resources -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Wetland ecology -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Wetland agriculture -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Water quality -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.title An assessment of water quality of the wetland downstream of Makhado oxidation and its potential effects on irrigation wters en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US

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