Towards a framework for enhancing school feeding programmes for rural development in Blouberg Local Municipality, South Africa

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dc.contributor.advisor Maliwichi, L. L.
dc.contributor.advisor Jideani, A. I. O.
dc.contributor.author Molotja, Makwena Cate
dc.date 2019
dc.date.accessioned 2019-10-08T12:04:18Z
dc.date.available 2019-10-08T12:04:18Z
dc.date.issued 2019-09-20
dc.identifier.citation Molotja, Makwena Cate (2019) Towards a framework for enhancing school feeding programmes for rural development in Blouberg Local Municipality, South Africa,University of Venda.<http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1441>.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1441
dc.description PhDRDV en_US
dc.description Institute for Rural Development
dc.description.abstract Many countries provide food to school children through school feeding programmes (SFPs). This is designed to alleviate short-term hunger and encourage learners to attend school. Many children in South Africa attend school hungry and lack general knowledge of nutrition, which negatively affects their learning abilities. Not much research attention has been paid to the potential of SFPs to improve learners‟ knowledge of nutrition. Nor has there been significant effort to stimulate local production of food involving community members, which might contribute to the development of rural areas. In the current study, the degree to which SFPs have alleviated hunger, promoted nutrition education, and enhanced the development of rural communities in Blouberg Local Municipality (BLM) was investigated. Data were collected from 11 primary schools in BLM where the South African Department of Basic Education implemented SFPs. At each school, quantitative data were collected from learners aged from 10 to 15 years using a structured, pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected through individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with learners, teaching staff, community members and government officials involved in the implementation of SFPs. Document analysis, direct observation, and taking notes, photographs, Venn and seasonal -diagraming were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, crosstabulation and binary logistic regression were used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data obtained in the form of interview transcripts and field notes were analysed using thematic content analysis. An inductive approach was followed. This entails coding the data and observing emerging patterns, culminating in organising the results into common themes. A composite index was used as a measure of the quality of SFPs. Perceived benefits of SFPs were assessed based on a validated and standardised 5-point ordinal scale. It was observed that 80 % school children who participated in the study were satisfied with the quality of the SFPs provided to them. The results confirmed those obtained through focus group discussions and individual interviews. Overall satisfaction with the quality of the SFP in BLM significantly and positively depended on the following knowledge, in descending order of importance: fewer sugary foods should be consumed; fewer fatty foods should be consumed and eating various foods helps in proper growth and development. Four predictor variables significantly influenced satisfaction with SFPs. These were: knowledge that a variety of food types is helpful for growth and development [OR = 3.72; P < 0.001; 95% C.I. = 1.77, 7.83]; knowledge that eating too much fatty food is harmful [OR = 2.93; P < 0.001; 95% C.I. = 1.83, 4.68]; knowledge that eating too much sugary food is harmful [OR = 2.18; P < 0.001; 95% C.I. = 1.45, 3.29]; and knowledge that eating too much sweet food is harmful because it can make people fat [OR = 1.58; P < 0.05; 95% C.I. = 1.01, 2.50]. All participants agreed that SFPs alleviated hunger and benefited the learners and their families. Although the participants cited numerous other benefits accrued through SFPs, there were challenges that should be addressed. The involvement of community members in the SFPs was reported to be minimal such as cooking and serving food and working in the school gardens. This could be maximised because SFPs presented an opportunity for local food production and rural community development. Non-delivery of food by suppliers and the negative impact it had on learners was the major challenge. This observation implied that the SFPs constituted a readily available market, which the rural communities could exploit to improve their income, create jobs and enhance the rural economy. Therefore, SFPs and school gardens should be integrated with nutrition education to improve the learners‟ level of nutrition knowledge and reinforce the consumption of healthy foods. Although initially, the SFP had a community development component, this seemed to be overlooked. A framework that underscores strong partnerships among government departments, NGOs and the private sector in implementing community and/or rural development initiatives was developed. The framework is based on strong partnerships between key stakeholders, policy support, investments in resources and infrastructure for rural development and capacity building. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xiii, 200 leaves : color illustrations, color Maps)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights University of Venda
dc.subject School feeding en_US
dc.subject Rural development en_US
dc.subject Undernourishment en_US
dc.subject Nutrition knowledge en_US
dc.subject Learners en_US
dc.subject.ddc 371.7160968256
dc.subject.lcsh School children -- Food -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Food relief -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Food aid programme
dc.subject.lcsh Nutrition -- Study and teaching -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Children -- South Africa --Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Children -- Nutrition
dc.subject.lcsh Schools lunchrooms, cafeterias, etc. -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.title Towards a framework for enhancing school feeding programmes for rural development in Blouberg Local Municipality, South Africa en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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