Towards efficient water utilisation in South African Higher Education Institutions: A case study of University of Venda

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dc.contributor.advisor Odiyo, J. O.
dc.contributor.advisor Mathivha, F. I.
dc.contributor.author Nkuna, Zanele
dc.date 2018
dc.date.accessioned 2019-06-19T10:29:23Z
dc.date.available 2019-06-19T10:29:23Z
dc.date.issued 2019-05-18
dc.identifier.citation Nkuna, Zanele (2018) Towards efficient water utilisation in South African Higher Education Institutions: A case study of University of Venda, University of Venda, South Africa,<http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1377>.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1377
dc.description MESHWR en_US
dc.description Department of Hydrology and Water Resources
dc.description.abstract Water scarcity has become a constraint for sustainable development in the higher education institutions in South Africa including University of Venda. Water infrastructure is one of the major challenges within higher education institutions, the existing water supply infrastructure is over 20 years old and was not planned for the current population. This study aimed at developing a water management plan for higher education institutions in South Africa using the University of Venda as a case study. A water resource management plan provides a road map for reducing water consumption while encouraging sustainable water utilisation. Evaluation was done within the institution to identify water sources, water resources infrastructure and water utilisation. The study employed questionnaire survey to collect data on water consumption, to evaluate issues of the institutional participation in resolving the water problems within the institution and deduce water wastage. Water supply data was obtained from meter readings and water invoices obtained from Vhembe District Municipality and University of Venda. The latter were used to determine water consumption within the institution. Based on the sample size, the results indicated the estimated amount of water consumed daily by UNIVEN population is 66 341.9 l/d excluding water utilised at the cafeteria, car wash and auditorium. The average water supplied to UNIVEN in 2017 was 67 642. 25 mega litres/month, this indicates that more water is supplied to the institution since the estimated institutional water demand excluding illegal students in the residence halls ranged between 415 740 l/d and 597 620 l/d of water while the estimated institutional water demand including illegal students varied between 282 2610 l/d and 406 6580 l/d. The latter further indicates that there is water wastage within the institution because the water supplied monthly to the institution was in mega litres as indicated in the invoices, but the results indicated that the amount of water utilised daily within the institution was in litres, this clearly shows that the respondents under estimated the amount of water they utilise. The average amount of water used by students residing on campus was 271 l/p/d to 735.5 l/p/d while day scholars and university staff use 55 l/p/d to 142.5 l/p/d. The average amount of water used for cleaning ranged between 1 318.5 l/d to 3 909 l/d while gardening usage ranged between 4600 l/d and 8 600 l/d. The School of Agriculture experimental farm uses 9 270.4 l/d and the university laundry was found to utilise 5 186 l/d. The university laboratories were found to utilise 125 l/d to 215 l/d per practical session with 3 to 4 practical sessions conducted per week. The study found that the total water used by construction workers for domestic purposes iv is 800 l/d. The utilisation trends showed that during the dry seasons, the university population generally used about twice as much water as compared to wet season because municipal water was supplemented by rain water for watering plants and washing the pavement. The survey results indicated that students residing in the university residences waste more water by allowing the tap to run while brushing teeth, washing dishes, excessive use of water to rinse clothes while doing laundry, opening showers and leaving the water running while waiting for a desired water temperature. Activities such as watering flowers and lawn in an unmonitored manner and pavement washing in which the hose pipe runs for several hours during watering and pavement washing result in water wastage. The university does not have an environmental or water education projects that encourage students and staff to use water efficiently. Water conservation measures are lacking in the institution because there are no policies and procedures that outline how water should be utilised. The developed water management plan for University of Venda outline the current water consumption, targets for reduction, drivers for reducing water consumption and water reduction strategies. This study recommends that the University targets to reduce potable water usage by 12% in the next 5 years. The latter has been highlighted in the proposed water management plan. The proposed plan further presents a suite of strategies to reduce water usage, improve institution water resources data and to plan for the future. Water utilisation within the institution has not been efficient due to water not being utilised in a sustainable manner. Sub-metering of each building, water awareness campaign, introduction of water utilisation policies, routine inspection and maintenance of infrastructure and appointing an environmental coordinator or working with water experts in the School of Environmental Sciences will help reduce water consumption within the institution. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xiii, 133 leaves : color illustrations, color maps)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights University of Venda
dc.subject Policies en_US
dc.subject Water management en_US
dc.subject Water Scarcity en_US
dc.subject Water consumption en_US
dc.subject Water demand en_US
dc.subject Water utilisation trends en_US
dc.subject.ddc 363.610968257
dc.subject.lcsh Water quality -- Measurement -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Water quality management -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Water use -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Water consumption -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Water-supply -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh University of Venda -- Students
dc.title Towards efficient water utilisation in South African Higher Education Institutions: A case study of University of Venda en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US

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