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Genetic analysis of human papillomavirus in a cohort of women in routine care in Northern South Africa

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dc.contributor.advisor Bessong, Pascal Obong
dc.contributor.advisor Mavhandu - Ramarumo, Lufuno Grace
dc.contributor.author Rikhotso, Rixongile Rhenny
dc.date 2019
dc.date.accessioned 2019-06-19T10:08:07Z
dc.date.available 2019-06-19T10:08:07Z
dc.date.issued 2019-05-18
dc.identifier.citation Rikhotso, Rixongile Rhenny (2019) Genetic analysis of human papillomavirus in a cohort of women in routine care in Northern South Africa, University of Venda, South Africa.<http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1376>.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1376
dc.description MSc (Microbiology) en_US
dc.description Department of Microbiology
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted virus known to be a causative agent of cervical cancer (CC), one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. HPV is a double stranded DNA virus of approximately 7,900 bp; belonging to Papillomaviridae family. To date, about 202 low risk (LR) and high risk (HR) HPV genotypes have been identified. However, available vaccines against HPV infection are designed based on the most common known genotypes. Therefore, it is critical to understand the scope and diversity of HPV genotypes in all geographical locations which can help to inform the design and development of future vaccines. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the burden and diversity of HPV genotypes in a cohort of women in routine care in northern South Africa. METHODS: Eighty seven women consented to participate in the study and each provided a specimen for analysis. With the help of qualified health care practitioners, Aptima Cervical Specimen Collection and Transport Kit (Hologic, San Diego, CA) was used to collect cervical specimens from each study participant following the manufacturer’s procedure. Total DNA was purified from the cervical pellet using QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The purified DNA was then subjected to a single round conventional PCR in a reaction volume of 100 μl to amplify HPV L1 gene comprising of approximately 450 bp. A portion of each PCR amplicon from each participant was denatured, hybridized and genotyped using the Linear Array HPV genotyping Test Kit (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc. Branchburg, NJ USA). The kit is designed to detect 37 HPV genotypes (genotypes 6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81, 82, 83, 84, IS39 and CP6108). To detect the HPV genotypes, the Linear Array (LA) reference guide was used for results interpretation following the manufacturer’s instructions. The other portion of each of the amplicons was subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS) using the Illumina MiniSeq platform. Using the Nextera XT DNA Library preparation kit, an initial input of 1ng genomic DNA was tagmented, cleaned up, normalized and pooled. The pooled library was then denatured with 0.1 N NaOH and diluted into a final volume of 500 μl at 1.8 pM then sequenced using the Local Run Manager option following the manufacturer’s instructions. The generated sequence data was downloaded into fastaQ format and analysed using Genious 11.0.5 software. RESULTS: Of the 87 participants, the overall proportion of women harbouring HPV DNA by linear array (LA) PCR was 23% (n=20). Of the 20, 16 (80%) were living with HIV. However, this difference was not significant (p=0.077). Genotyping data generated by Roche LA method was successful for all the 20 positive amplicons. In this study, 27 (73%) of the 37 HPV genotypes incorporated in the Roche Linear Array method were detected. The detected genotypes include: types 84, 83, 81, 73, 72, 71, 70, 69, 68, 66, 62, 61, 59, 54, 53, 52, 51, 45, 42, 39, 35, 26, 18, 16, 6, IS39 and CP6108. Most women (15/20;75%) harboured multiple infections compared to single infection. In terms of genotypes distribution, the most frequent genotypes detected LR HPV types in increasing order of frequency included HPV type 61 and 83 (12%), 62 (36%) and 81 (43%). On the other hand, HPV type 66, 53, 52, 51, 18 and 16 were the most common genotypes detected HR HPV types. In contrast, although genotyping data was successfully generated from 15 of 20 women (75%), NGS technology was seen to be more sensitive compared to Roche LA method. Nearly all the detected genotypes identified by the commercial kit were detected by NGS. In addition, NGS detected 10 namely: HPV types 11, 31, 33, 40, 55, 56, 58, 64, 67, and 82 that were not detected by the LA yet incorporated in the kit. Moreover, it was observed that NGS identified additional 6 HPV types including HPV types 2, 27, 30, 35, 85 and 102 not incorporated in the Roche LA kit. A similar distribution of HPV multiple infections was observed in the study population, however, high frequency of 93% (14 of 15) was detected by NGS. The proportion of women harbouring one or more of the 22 LR HPV types was 100% (n=15).The most frequent LR genotypes in increasing order of frequency was HPV type 62 and 70 (27%), 6 (40%) and 11 (47%). HPV types 40, 42, 54, 72, 64, and 81 were the least detected genotypes with n=1 (7%) each. Furthermore, the common combination observed among the participants was type 6 and 11. In contrast, the most frequent detected genotypes in the study population by NGS under the HR HPV types in increasing order of frequency include type 35 (21%), 39, 56 and 82 (29%), 68 (36%) and 51 (50%). In addition, HPV types 26, 31, 45, 53, 56, 58 and 66 were the least detected genotypes n=1 (7%) in the study population. HPV 39 and 68 were observed as the common combination detected under HR HPV types. Following genotyping by LA and NGS, the demographic and clinical data of all the 20 positive subjects by PCR were subjected to statistical analysis to determine the association between HPV positive DNA status and associated risk factors. Smoking status (p=0.000), age at first sexual intercourse (p=0.011), vaccination status (p=0.000), gender of sexual partner (p=0.000), highest level of education (p=0.004), marital status (p=0.008) and number of sexual partners (p=0.000) were found to be having a positive statistical association. CONCLUSION: Amplification of targeted HPV DNA from cervical specimens demonstrated the presence of HPV infection in the study cohort, with a proportion of 23%. The findings illustrate that there is a diversity of HPV genotypes prevalent in the study population as shown by Roche LA and NGS methods. However, the NGS method was observed to be more sensitive than Roche LA in detecting HPV genotypes. Furthermore, NGS identified 6 additional HPV types not incorporated in the Roche LA. Thus, there are genotypes that may be present in the study population that the Roche commercial kit may fail to detect. Therefore, is it imperative to use both genotyping methods to confirm HPV genotypes. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xi, 70 leaves : color illustrations, color maps)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights University of Venda
dc.subject Human papillomavirus en_US
dc.subject Cervical cancer en_US
dc.subject Genotypes en_US
dc.subject Linear Array en_US
dc.subject Genotyping en_US
dc.subject Next generation sequencing en_US
dc.subject South Africa en_US
dc.subject.ddc 616.9110968
dc.subject.lcsh Cancer -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Papillomavirus -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Cancer in women -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Women -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Virus diseases -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Women -- Diseases -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Generative organs, Female -- Cancer
dc.subject.lcsh Papovaviruses -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.title Genetic analysis of human papillomavirus in a cohort of women in routine care in Northern South Africa en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US

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