Developing community-informed technology for harvesting rainwater for domestic use in a semi-arid area of South Africa

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dc.contributor.advisor Francis, J.
dc.contributor.advisor Manjoro, M.
dc.contributor.advisor Kapila, P. F.
dc.contributor.author Nyamukondiwa, Pertina
dc.date 2019
dc.date.accessioned 2019-05-28T06:18:18Z
dc.date.available 2019-05-28T06:18:18Z
dc.date.issued 2020-05-16
dc.identifier.citation Nyamukondiwa, Pertina (2019) Developing community-informed technology for harvesting rainwater for domestic use in a semi-arid area of South Africa, University of Venda, South Africa,<http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1295>.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1295
dc.description PhDRDV en_US
dc.description Institute for Rural Development
dc.description.abstract Approximately, 780 million of people in the world lack access to safe water for domestic use. Out of these, 37 % are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the negative impact of climate variability and change, scarcity of water is likely to continue worsening. Although semi-arid areas experience water shortages, they receive limited amounts of rainfall. Rainwater might help alleviate temporal water shortages. However, rainwater is rarely harvested for use when most needed. The PhD in Rural Development thesis research was carried out in Mabayeni village, which falls under Ward 35 of Collins Chabane Local Municipality in Limpopo Province of South Africa. It was designed to develop a grassroots community-informed prototype for a technology that could be used to harvest rainwater for domestic use. A series of interrelated studies with the following specific objectives underpinned the research: (1) To determine the extent of water scarcity; (2) To identify strategies households used to cope with inadequate availability of water for domestic use; (3) To document the rainwater harvesting techniques rural households used; (4) To compare the features of rainwater harvesting technology that people of different age groups preferred; (5) To develop community-preferred prototypes of rainwater harvesting technology with the best potential to increase access to water for domestic use; and (6) To evaluate the community-preferred prototypes of rainwater harvesting technology. Partly, the study was conducted as a follow-up to a Master’s research study on climate change carried out in 2014 in Mabayeni village. In the 2014 study, it was revealed that water scarcity was a major result of climate change in the area. In addition, Mabayeni was perceived as the driest compared to other villages in the ward. The Cresswell (2013) explanatory sequential mixed method design guided the study. Multi-stage sampling was followed to select respondents. This entailed categorizing respondents first dividing them by age and gender. Respondents were placed in the following clusters: children (boys and girls), youth (male and female), adult (men and women), and the elderly. This was done in order to ensure that there was triangulation of data sources. Various participatory research techniques were used to collect qualitative data for the same reason. For objective 1, data collection techniques such as photo voice, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, participatory mapping, transect walks, storytelling and seasonal diagramming were used. Data were analysed through card sorting, Atlas.ti version 7.5.7-mediated thematic content analysis, map ranking, matrix scoring and conversation analysis. Data collection techniques employed for objective 2 were similar to those used in objective 1 with the exception of participatory mapping. Thematic content analysis in Atlas.ti, map ranking and matrix ranking were used to analyse data for this objective. Only focus group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks were used to collect data for objective 3. Data analysis techniques used were similar to those used in the previous objective with the exception of map ranking. For objective 4, data were collected through focus group discussions and analysed using matrix ranking and Atlas.ti-aided thematic content analysis. In objective 5, development of artefacts was guided by prototyping and sketch modelling techniques. Techniques such as verbal protocol analysis, mathematical calculations and presentation and analysis were used to analyse data. A questionnaire with open and closed ended questions was also used to collect data for the last objective. Open-ended questions were analysed using thematic content analysis. In addition, the Kruskal Wallis test in SPSS version 25 determined first, the two prototypes (one for zinc and another for thatch roof) that were regarded as the best; and second, if prototype component ratings significantly differed (p <0.05) across prototypes. As a post hoc test, the Dunn’s test in R Statistical Software version 3.3.0 was used for pairwise comparisons. Data saturation determined the sample size. A total of 17 community engagement sessions were held to collect, analyse and validate findings with the grassroots community members in Mabayeni village. Water scarcity in Mabayeni village was reconfirmed to be seasonal. The dry season in each year was five months long. During this time, residents adopted random, risky and unhygienic coping strategies. Although rainwater was collected from rooftops, there was no formal technology used to gather and store large quantities for later use. This was attributed to lack of resources and knowledge on how to develop such technologies. The most commonly preferred features of rainwater harvesting technology across interest groups related to water quality, construction materials and security. All interest groups preferred a technology that harvested clean/potable water. Moreover, the elderly wanted a technology that would help them access the stored water easily. In total, 14 prototypes were developed. When all the interest groups evaluated the prototypes, the ones that boys and men developed were selected as the best for zinc and thatched roofbased technologies, respectively. Selection of a prototype that children produced as the best underlined that children were an important resource that communities should never marginalise. Nor should their ability to contribute useful ideas be underestimated when seeking solutions to local challenges. Active involvement of grassroots community members in the entire design process helped tailor specifications of the technology to user needs, thereby highlighting the importance of inclusive decision making in development practice. This was also important because it created ownership and increased chances of adopting the technology. Lastly, the current study reaffirmed the view that postgraduate degree research can be harnessed to coproduce solutions to community-identified challenges. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xxii, 297 leaves : color illustration, color maps)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights University of Venda
dc.subject Colins Chabane Local Municipality en_US
dc.subject Community informed en_US
dc.subject Domestic use en_US
dc.subject Rainwater harvesting en_US
dc.subject Rural communities en_US
dc.subject Technology en_US
dc.subject Water Scarcity en_US
dc.subject.ddc 551.5770968257
dc.subject.lcsh Water-supply -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Rain-water (Water-supply) -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Water harvesting -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.title Developing community-informed technology for harvesting rainwater for domestic use in a semi-arid area of South Africa en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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