Burden of infection and genetic characterization of human herpes virus type 8 in HIV infected individuals in Northern South Africa

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dc.contributor.advisor Bessong, Pascal Obong
dc.contributor.advisor Mavhandu - Ramarumo, Lufuno Grace
dc.contributor.author Etta, Elizabeth Mashu
dc.date 2019
dc.date.accessioned 2019-05-27T08:00:11Z
dc.date.available 2019-05-27T08:00:11Z
dc.date.issued 2019-05-16
dc.identifier.citation Etta, Elizabeth Mashu (2019) Burden of infection and genetic characterization of human herpes virus type 8 in HIV infected individuals in Northern South Africa
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1287
dc.description Department of Microbiology en_US
dc.description PhD (Microbiology)
dc.description.abstract Human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), and AIDS related Kaposi’s sarcoma (AIDS-KS). HHV-8 which is a member of the Herpesviridae family, exhibits extensive genetic diversity globally. In endemic regions, infection with HHV-8 occurs very early on in life, which is an indication of both environmental and vertical routes of transmission. The advent of HIV leads to the classification of an AIDS-KS defining condition in HIV infections. This suggests that in regions where HIV and HHV-8 are endemic, KS may become common in a mature HIV epidemic. Just like the prevalence of HIV in Northern South Africa is generally high as in most regions of the country, as the HIV epidemic matures in South Africa, it is important to understand the burden and distribution of HHV-8 infection, and the likely genotypes infecting the population. The main objective of the thesis was to establish the epidemiology and infecting genotypes of HHV-8 in Northern South Africa (Limpopo Province), where no data exists. First, a systematic review of the literature was carried out for the entire African continent to determine the seroprevalence and genotype distribution of HHV-8 in all African countries (n=53). In this review, Sudan and South Sudan were considered as one country. Articles were searched using the PRISMA guideline and exported using an article grid. More than two-thirds (64%) of the studies reported on seroprevalence, 29.3% on genotypes; and 9.5% were on both seroprevalence and genotypes. About 45% (24/53) of the African countries had data on HHV-8 seroprevalence exclusively, and more than half (53%) had data on either seroprevalence or genotypes. Almost half (47%) of the countries had no data on HHV-8 infection. There was high heterogeneity in the types of tests and interpretation algorithms used in determining HHV-8 seropositivity across the different studies. Generally, seroprevalence ranged from 2.0% in a group of young children in Eritrea to 100% in a small group of individuals with KS in the Central Africa Republic and a larger group of KS in individuals in Morocco. Approximately, 16% of all the studies reported on children. The difference in seroprevalence across the African region was not significant (95% CI, X2 =0.86; p =0.35), although specifically, a relatively significant ETTA MASHU ELIZABETH, PHD IN MICROBIOLOGY|UNIVERSITY OF VENDA, 2019|VIII level of infection was observed in HIV-infected children. About 38% of the countries had data on K1 genotypes A, A5, B, C, F and Z which occurred at frequencies of 5.3%, 26.3%, 42.1%, 18.4%, 5.3% and 2.6% respectively. Twenty-three percent of the countries had data for K15 genotypes, whereas genotypes P, M and N occurred at frequencies of 52.2%, 39.1% and 8.7% respectively. Data on HHV-8 inter-genotype recombinant is scanty. Our finding suggests that HHV-8 is endemic on the entire African continent, and in HIV endemic regions, but there is need for a harmonized testing protocol for better understanding of HHV-8 seropositivity. HHV-8 genotype A5 and B for K1 gene and genotype P and M for K15 gene are the most predominant genotypes in Africa. The review, for the first time, has provided information on HHV-8 burden on the entire African continent, and suggests that vaccine development efforts for Africa should focus on genotypes B and P. The second component of the investigation focused on the burden of HHV-8 in an HIV population in Northern South Africa (Limpopo Province). Plasma from 3501 HIV infected individuals from 5 districts in Limpopo Province were assessed for antibodies to both the lytic antigen (ORFK8.1) and the latent antigen (ORF73). The distribution of infection was analyzed based on demographic, socioeconomic, and immunological parameters. Statistical inferences for significant differences were determined by Chisquare at a confidence interval of 95%. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. About 19.0% of the study population was positive for antibodies to either the lytic or latent antigens or both. Prevalence of antibodies to the lytic antigen was significantly higher than prevalence of antibodies to the latent antigen (17.3% vs 4.1%; p=0.0001). Significant differences were observed for age groups, racial population groups, districts and year of sample collection (p=<0.0001, p=<0.0001, p=<0.0001 and p=0.0385) respectively. Associations were found between both antigens in comparison to the different variables such as age group, racial population groups and districts (R2 value ranging between 0.886 and 1.0). The burden of HHV-8 has now been established for the first time in Northern South Africa. The third aspect of the investigation was a meta-analysis of HHV-8 seroprevalence in Southern Africa in order to understand the impact of geographical location (urban vs rural) on infection. The analysis revealed a significant association between urban settings and HHV-8 infection (p=0.0001). ETTA MASHU ELIZABETH, PHD IN MICROBIOLOGY|UNIVERSITY OF VENDA, 2019|IX The fourth component of the thesis examined the detection of HHV-8 antigen through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 534 participants in HIV infected and HIV noninfected populations. A selection of mouthwash DNA samples were subjected to Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for subsequent genotype inference. Mouth wash samples were obtained from each consenting individual before eating or smoking, and their DNA was purified. A 233bp fragment of the ORF26 gene of HHV-8 was amplified by PCR. HHV-8 was detected in 150 of the 534 participants (28.1%). A significant difference in detection was observed for gender, HIV status, district and the level of education (p=0,0003; p=0.0094; p=0.0002 and p=0.0095) respectively. Consensus sequences were derived from NGS reads for 13 samples. The genotyping results revealed that genotype Q, B, E and N are the genotypes predominant in the study population. As such no mixed infections were detected. Therefore, from the investigations foregoing have demonstrated for the first time the following: (1) HHV-8 is endemic in the entire African continent, which suggest a coendemicity in regions already endemic for HIV; (2) HHV-8 is endemic in Northern South Africa; (3) Urban settings in Southern Africa are associated with high HHV-8 infection; (4) HHV-8 genotypes Q, B, E and N may be predominant in Northern South Africa, with B and P common on the entire African continent. Hence, studies should focus on the generation of full length HHV-8 genomes of the common genotypes to support the selection of genes for vaccine design and development. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xxi, 191 leaves : color illustrations, color maps)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights University of Venda
dc.subject HIV-8 en_US
dc.subject Seroprevalence en_US
dc.subject Genotypes en_US
dc.subject Systematic review en_US
dc.subject Africa en_US
dc.subject.ddc 362.19697920968257
dc.subject.lcsh AIDS (Disease) --South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh HIV infections -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh HIV-positive persons -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Children -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Children -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Herpesviruses --South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.subject.lcsh Herpes simplex virus -- South Africa -- Limpopo
dc.title Burden of infection and genetic characterization of human herpes virus type 8 in HIV infected individuals in Northern South Africa en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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