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The efficiency of ultrasonorgraphy in monitoring ovarian structures and foetal development in goats, sheep and cattle as verified through laparoscopy and laparotomy

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dc.contributor.advisor Barry, D. M.
dc.contributor.advisor Mashiloane, M. L.
dc.contributor.author Siphugu, Steven Mbonalo
dc.date 2018
dc.date.accessioned 2018-06-06T09:23:50Z
dc.date.available 2018-06-06T09:23:50Z
dc.date.issued 2018-05-18
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1148
dc.description MSCAGR (Animal Science)
dc.description Department of Animal Science
dc.description.abstract The main purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of ultrasonography in monitoring reproductive organs, pregnancy diagnosis, and foetal gender identification and to verify its reliability by laparoscopy and laparotomy, where applicable. Reproductive organs, pregnancy diagnosis and gender of the foetus were examined by A-mode ultrasound using 3.0 - 8.0 MHz trans-rectal transducer. A Sony Olympus Model laparoscope with a camera transducer was used to monitor the reproductive organs and pregnancy diagnosis. In monitoring the follicular dynamics, daily ultrasonography (ULTS) scanning was done for 17 days in sheep and for 21 days in both goats and cattle. Follicles of diameter ≥ 3 mm were selected for analysis of growth, ovulation and regression. For determining the efficiency of the techniques, laparoscopy (LAPSC) and laparotomy (LAPT) were used on days 3 and 10 of the goats and sheep oestrous cycle. The follicles were grouped into three categories according to their diameter as 3 - 4.9 mm, 5 - 7.9 mm and ≥ 8 mm, whereas the follicles of cattle were grouped as 3 - 4.9 mm, 5 - 9.9 mm and ≥ 10 mm. Early pregnancy diagnosis examinations were carried out from day 18 post insemination until pregnancy was confirmed. Foetal gender examinations were conducted from day 40 of pregnancy until the day the gender of the foetus was confirmed. Follicular development was accompanied by the occurrence of waves of follicular growth at different period of the oestrous cycle. The first follicular wave emerged on day 1.0 ± 0.4 in goats, 1.2 ± 0.4 in sheep and 2.2 ± 0.4 in cattle. The maximum diameter of the dominant follicles of observed follicular waves in goats was 7.3 ± 0.4 mm, 6.6 ± 0.2 mm, 7.3 ± 0.2 mm; in sheep was 6.4 ± 0.4 mm, 6.6 ± 0.4 mm and 6.7 ± 0.7 mm and in cattle was 13.1 ± 0.8 mm, 14.2 ± 0.6 mm and 15.7 ± 0.6 mm in wave 1, 2 and 3, respectively. However, the maximum size of the dominant follicle of the ovulatory wave in cattle was larger than the dominant follicles of both first and second waves, but in goats and sheep the dominant follicles were of similar size throughout the waves. In cattle, the ovulatory wave was shorter (p ˂ 0.05) than the duration of the first and second waves, while in sheep and goats were similar throughout the waves. In goats the total number of follicles counted in right and left ovaries under category 3 - 4.9 mm was lower with ULTS and LAPSC than with LAPT method (p ˂ 0.05). In sheep the mean number of follicles between 3 - 4.9 mm category in both right and left ovaries were different (p ˂ 0.05) between ULTS and LAPT. However, for categories 5 - 7.9 mm and ≥ 8 mm in both goats and sheep the mean numbers of follicles observed by all techniques were similar (p ˃ 0.05). In goats, pregnancy diagnosis accuracy improved from zero percent on day 18 to 100% on day 26 - 28, in sheep pregnancy diagnosis was 40% on day 18 and improved to 100% on day 20 - 22 vi of gestation. In cattle accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis was not possible at day 18 and gradually increased to 100% on day 30 - 32 of gestation. Out of 5 (100%) goat’s foetuses whose gender was determined, the diagnosis was correct in 100% (3/3) of the male foetuses and 100% (2/2) of the female foetuses. In sheep two foetuses were sexed as males while the other three were sexed as females and were both 100%. Out of 60% (3/5) of foetuses examined in cattle, 1 (100%) was identified as male and the remaining 2 (100%) were identified as females. The results obtained confirmed that the accuracy for foetal gender by ultrasonography was 100% in all foetuses observed. The current study demonstrated that trans-rectal ultrasonography examination is an efficient method for monitoring follicular dynamics, diagnosing pregnancy and foetal gender identification and that it is as reliable as laparoscopy and laparotomy where they were applied together. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship NRF en_US
dc.format.extent 1 online resource (xv, 82 leaves : color illustrations)
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Follicular dynamics en_US
dc.subject Pregnancy diagnosis en_US
dc.subject Foetal gender identification en_US
dc.subject Ultrasonography en_US
dc.subject Laparoscopy en_US
dc.subject Laparotomy en_US
dc.subject Sheep en_US
dc.subject Goats en_US
dc.subject Cattle en_US
dc.subject.ddc 616.0743
dc.subject.lcsh Ultrasonic in medicine
dc.subject.lcsh Ultranomic in obstetrics
dc.subject.lcsh Fetus -- Ultrasonic imaging
dc.subject.lcsh Fetal growth disorders
dc.subject.lcsh Sheep
dc.subject.lcsh Goats
dc.subject.lcsh Livestock
dc.subject.lcsh Ultrasonic imaging
dc.subject.lcsh Acoustic imaging
dc.subject.lcsh Ultrasonics
dc.subject.lcsh Diagnosis, Ultrsonic
dc.title The efficiency of ultrasonorgraphy in monitoring ovarian structures and foetal development in goats, sheep and cattle as verified through laparoscopy and laparotomy en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US


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